Infectious Disease Compendium

Bronchiolitis

Diagnosis

Wheezy illness in children < 2 years old.

Inflammation of small bronchioles (2mm or less, those with no cartilage) with epithelial necrosis and sloughing.  They have multiple centrilobular nodules in multiple lobes on CT.

Epidemiologic Risks

Being a child as this is a disease (mostly) of kids.

Microbiology

RSV (mostly), parainfluenza 1 and 3 viruses, adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, and M. pneumoniae.

Empiric Therapy

See your pediatrician, I am an internist. But steroids do not help (PubMed).

There are rare cases in adults and are due to "Mycoplasma pneumoniae in eight (40.0%) patients, influenza virus in two (10.0%), influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in two (10.0%), Haemophilus influenzae in three (15.0%), and respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus in one (5.0%) patient" (PubMed).

In adults it leaves no long term sequela.

Pearls

Last Update: 05/27/18.