Dilations/destruction of the airway. They become colonized with a wide variety of bacteria, mycobacteria, and molds. Patients are miserable with a chronic productive cough.
Smoking and cystic fibrosis.
Depends on what grows. Antibiotics are most beneficial for acute exacerbations. As with all chronic conditions, there are guidelines.
In non-CF bronchiectasis, the daily azithromycin results in a lower rate of infectious exacerbations compared to placebo. This could result in better quality of life and might influence survival, although 88% developed antibiotic resistance (PubMed).
RA patients treated with biologics have increased rates of pneumonia (PubMed).