Infectious Disease Compendium

Trichinella

Microbiology

A nematode, includes T. britovi, T. nativa, T. pseudospiralis, T. spiralis.

Epidemiologic Risks

Eating infected, poorly cooked, meat.

T. spiralis: Worldwide Pigs, rats, horses, bears, foxes. They hunt and eat wild boar all over the US and Europe. And get trichinella (PubMed) (PubMed).

T. nativa : Arctic, subarctic bears, horses. Eat a black bear, get Trichinella (PubMed) with extra added thrombotic complications.

T. britovi: Temperate, subarctic boar, horses, foxes.

T. pseudospiralis : Arctic Birds, omnivorous mammals and Temperate, subarctic bears and Subarctic bears.

T. nelsoni : Southern Africa hyenas and Tropical Africa lions, panthers.

Syndromes

Diarrhea, abdominal discomfort and vomiting severity depending on the worm burden. Then systemic dissemination causes fever, periorbital edema and myositis with pain, swelling, and weakness that often moves from the head down.

Treatment

Thiabendazole 25 mg/kg/day for 1 week for intestinal disease > albendazole 400 mg/day for 5 days. The myositis is treated symptomatically.

Post exposure prophylaxis in Germany was effective for preventing illness.   "Mebendazole may be particularly suitable for the use in PEP as (a) it is poorly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a high concentration in the lumen [29], and (b) it was shown to be highly effective against intestinal stages of the parasite . Albendazole, on the other hand, may be more useful should the larvae have already migrated and have become established in the muscles (PubMed).

Notes

(:mmmmmmmm rat:).