Infectious Disease Compendium



Linguatula (the tongue worm, so called because of its shape) and Armillifer.

Epidemiologic Risks

Found in Africa, the Middle East, and Malaysia, it is associated with eating raw snake.

Armillifer and Porocephalus: live in the lungs of reptiles.

Linguatula: carnivorous mammals such as dogs by way of sheep, goats and camels.


Usually no symptoms unless they go to a a vital area. Can be found serendipitous in the OR when mucking about for other reasons, and is a cause of eosinophilia.

Linguatula serrata and Armillifer can infect humans causes a self-limited allergic nasopharyngitis--the halzoun (allergic pharyngitis following the consumption of raw or undercooked ovine liver in Lebanon)(PubMed) or marrara syndrome (PubMed).

On x-ray "calcified nymphs of Armillifer spp. and less often L. serrata are detected on pulmonary or abdominal radiographs, showing a horseshoe or C-shaped structure (PubMed)."




No more snake sushi for me.

Last update: 05/05/18