Gram negative, comma shaped, rods. Includes C. coli, C. fetus subsp. fetus (Review), C. hyointestinalis, C. jejuni, C. lari, C. sputorum subsp. bubul, C. sputorum subsp. sputorum, C. upsaliensis.
A worldwide zoonosis found in the gi tract of wild or domesticated cattle, cats, dogs, goats, rodents sheep, swine, and all varieties of fowl.
Cases have been increasing in the US, along with ciprofloxicin resistance (PubMed).
Upscale cooking trends, like eating less than completely cooked chicken livers, are also a risk (Pubmed). Chicken sushi. Bad idea.
Castrating sheep with your teeth, as they do in Wyoming, can lead to disease (MMWR). Probably in the sheep as well.
And more from the CDC (PubMed): "Increased risk for enteric infection among workers in agriculture, health care, food, and personal care occupations might be related to workplace exposures to pathogens. Campylobacteriosis or salmonellosis should be considered when workers have symptoms compatible with these diseases." What? I should think of those organisms in patients with compatible symptoms? What a concept.
Those who take care of cattle.
And drinking cattle or swine fecally contaminated water or slurry by mistake (one hopes) during events like obstacle adventure races (PubMed).
Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov.: reptiles (PubMed).
Bacteremia can occur in elderly or immunocompromised with C. fetus or C. jejuni being the most common (PubMed). C. jejuni and C. coli bacteremia occurs mainly in moderately young individuals without severe underlying diseases, are susceptible to antimicrobial agents, and the outcome is good, whether or not appropriate or inappropriate antimicrobial treatment given in the hospital (PubMed). At least in Finland. Your mileage may vary.
While usually self limited, one person had isolated from their stool for more than a decade. The organism had "adapted to the internal environment of the patient" (PubMed). Poor bacteria. So much for location, location, location (PubMed).
The effect of antibiotic treatment is not impressive, it will shorten symptoms by 1.3 days, hardly enough time to finish a good novel (PubMed). A single dose of one gram of azithromycin can be curative (PubMed), although the usual dose is 500 mg a day for 3 days.
There is an ongoing issue of erythromycin and ciprofloxacin resistant Campylobacter jejuni subspecies jejuni in MSW in Quebec, Canada (PubMed).
Campylobacter species most likely in the blood are C. fetus and C. jejuni and are likely susceptible to imipenem or another carbapenem. Many bloodstream isolates are resistant to fluoroquinolones and erythromycin. Combine the beta lactam with gentamicin in patients with severe bacteremia and endovascular infections.
C. jejuni is also associated with Immunoproliferative Small Intestinal Disease, a form of lymphoma (PubMed).