Gram positive rods. B. alvei, B. anthrasis, B. cerus, B. circulans, B. laterosporus, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, B. sphaericus, B. subtilus, B. thuringenisis.
Epidemiologic RisksDepends on the organism.
B. cereus group and Bacillus species are resistant to killing by alcohol and have caused health-care associated outbreaks, including contaminated alcohol pads (CDC).
B. anthrasis aka Anthrax (One of the many bands who are far worse than the entity after which they are named. Like Kansas. And the Dooby Brothers.
Cutaneous anthrax: large necrotic ulcer with lots of surrounding edema, can occur from making drums with goat hides (PubMed).
Shaving brushes. Well, at the turn of the 18th century (PubMed). But I use a shaving brush made with Badger hair. Gives one pause.
Respiratory: Acute respiratory failure and sepsis with hemoptysis and wide mediastinum on CXR.
GI: Bloody diarrhea with colonic necrosis and perforation.
B. cerus: food poisoning/diarrhea associated with fried rice. B. cerus can cause line related infections, in Japan it is a summer disease (PubMed). Also CNS disease, perhaps from food, in neutropenic leukemics (PubMed). There has been an ongoing problem of anthrax in Scottish IVDA.
Ocular infections after penetrating trauma and IVDA.
Bacillus species can cause the usual hodgepodge of infections: meningitis, endocarditis, line infections etc etc and it can be a contaminant. You cannot necessarily blow it off, which, I suppose, is why you get the big bucks.
B. pumilus: causes a skin lesion in shepherds that mimics cutaneous anthrax (PubMed).
B. cereus and B. licheniformis isolates are susceptible to cefepime, carbapenems, aminoglycosides and vancomycin, but B. pumilus isolates are resistant to all antibiotics except for quinolones, amoxicillin./clavulanate,vancomycin (PubMed).
Treatment is supportive for GI symptoms.
B. anthrasis a potential marker of bioterrorism, see the CDC website http://www.bt.cdc.gov/ for complete up to date information.