MicrobiologyGram positive branching rods; includes A. israelii as the most common but includes A. cardiffensis, A. europaeus, A. funkei, A. gerencseriae, A. graevenitzii, A. houstonensis, A. lingnae, A. meyeri,A. naeslundii/viscosus complex, A. neuii, A. odontolyticus, A. radingae, A. turicensis, Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) bernardiae, Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes. Infections are more often than not polymicrobial.
Epidemiologic RisksPart of the human GI tract, often disease occurs with poor dentition (lumpy jaw), aspiration (most commonly), and trauma (abdominal/uterine infections).
If you are concerned about lumpy jay, make pathologist does the proper histopathology: "Twelve serial sections for each case were cut from the paraffin blocks, individually collected on positively charged slides to obtain good section-to-slide adhesion, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). Histopathological examination of the serial sections allowed the identification of bacterial colonies consistent with actinomycetes in 22 cases (32 %). The proposed histopathological examination allowed the retrospective diagnosis of cervical actinomycosis in one-third of clinical specimens that remained misdiagnosed following traditional H&E examination (PubMed)."